Chance to get pregnant during each menstrual cycle is calculated to be 25 percent for average fertile couples. This means, even if everything was normal it may still take a long time to conceive. Normally, eight out of ten women who become pregnant without any medical assistance do so within two years time of trying. Nowadays, it is common for couples to seek valuable advice and help if they are facing any difficulty in conceiving. On an average, about 15 percent couples seek medical help for Assisted Pregnancy at some point of time depending upon various personal factors.
What is Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART Procedure)?
Couples wanting a baby after prolonged failures of natural methods of conception prefer assisted reproductive technology (ART procedures) for a successful outcome. The treatments in ART include in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT), zygote intrafallopian transfer and embryo cryopreservation. Many treatments involve handling of eggs or embryos outside the body like extracting (eggs, sperms) pairing, fertilizing, and again implanting back into the womb. These procedures along with fertility drugs have positive outcomes. Assisted reproductive technology is the best opportunity for infertile couples to have a biological child.
Causes of Infertility in Women
There are number of causes or factors which affect pregnancy. Hormones, various cervical and uterine problems, fallopian tube damage are some to mention. Oestrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, endorphins, prolactin, and relaxin play a major role in conception. Ovulation and reproduction are both dependent on these hormones because these help ovaries to release eggs and meet sperms to produce babies. Cervical problems can be insufficiency of cervix which may lead to second trimester miscarriage. The length of the cervix plays a major role here. If it is smaller in size then there are more risks involved. If you have conceived then gynecologists may suggest you undergo regular check-ups and transvaginal scans to keep track of cervix length. Uterine problems are generally related to anatomy of uterus and acquired abnormalities of uterine.
Types of Female Infertility Treatments
The following list elaborates some of the major types of female infertility treatments.
- In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) – Some time back, in vitro fertilization (IVF) was known by name of ‘test-tube baby’. In today’s era, it is much known as an advanced infertility treatment. In vitro fertilization procedure can help conceive a baby if both fallopian tubes of female are either absent or blocked due to surgery, tubal pregnancy or infection and endometriosis reduced sperm count or sperm motility. Process of fertilization is manually done by combining an ovum and sperm in a laboratory dish. What normally occurs inside a woman now takes place in an IVF Zygote or fertilized ovum is then cultured for 2 to 6 days in a healthy medium before being implanted in the same or another female uterus. This process involves continuous monitoring of development. The intent is to establish a successful pregnancy in cases of difficulty.
- Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) – Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most widely used female infertility treatments. Intrauterine insemination basically involves the implantation of sperm taken from male partner directly into uterus of female partner. It is mainly recommended for women suffering from underlying cervical mucus or cervical scar issues. Women with a medical history of pelvic infections are not advised to undergo IUI as it may prove risky for them. During IUI procedure, doctors provide certain medications that help in producing good amount of eggs. During the time of ovulation, doctors inject sperm carefully in uterus with the help of medical tools like catheter for increasing the possibility of fertilization.
- Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) – Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an infertility treatment procedure which is mainly performed by injecting sperm of male partner into matured eggs obtained through in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure. During ICSI procedure, respective fertility specialists remove a sample of sperm. They carefully insert the obtained sperms into eggs via thin needles. Once intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure is completed, eggs are transferred into female’s uterus or fallopian tubes. They may be asked to visit fertility centers several times for medical check-ups in order to confirm their pregnancy. Doctors are likely to order imaging tests like ultrasound and some blood tests for ensuring positive results.
- Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT) – Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) is a favorable infertility intervention for women who have issues like impaired fallopian tubes. Zygote intrafallopian transfer or ZIFT is somewhat similar to IVF procedure. It only differs in terms of embryo implantation. Unlike a conventional in vitro fertilization procedure, ZIFT involves insertion of fertilized embryo directly into fallopian tubes of female. This is why fertility specialists also refer ZIFT infertility procedure as tubal embryo transfer procedure (TET). At first, doctors give ovary-stimulating medicines to women for increasing their egg count. These eggs are taken out carefully and sent to a medical laboratory for artificial fertilization procedure. Once fertilization is done, respective doctors transfer these matured eggs in fallopian tube through laparoscopic procedure. Laparoscopy involves use of a thin device known as catheter which helps in placement of eggs at proper position in a safe manner.
- Gamete Intrafallopian Tube Transfer (GIFT) – Gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT) is one of the most popular assisted reproductive female infertility treatment Gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT) may prove beneficial for couples who have undergone IVF but have not achieved success. Women who are willing to undergo gamete intrafallopian tube transfer method must have healthy fallopian tubes or at least one of them must be in a healthy condition. Doctors insert a medical tool known as laparoscope inside patient’s ovaries in order to take out eggs. Simultaneously they take out sperm from male partner and mix them into an instrument called as catheter. At the end, catheter is carefully inserted into fallopian tubes to enhance the chances of successful pregnancy.
- Oocyte Cryopreservation – Also referred to as ‘vitrification’ and ‘egg freezing’, oocyte cryopreservation is an advanced method which helps in storing healthy eggs of women much before they plan to undergo pregnancy. Women who have other professional priorities or health issues may opt for oocyte cryopreservation. It has been scientifically proven that quality of woman’s egg starts to deplete with her increasing age. Oocyte cryopreservation technique involves removal of healthy eggs from a female who belongs to reproductive age category. Doctors mostly recommend this procedure to women in their early 30s. These obtained eggs are stored in a specialized laboratory and taken out whenever someone is ready to experience motherhood and undergo pregnancy. In this way, oocyte cryopreservation significantly raises the possibility of pregnancy.
- Donor Egg Program – Donor egg program involves use of eggs obtained from donors. Women who are not able to conceive due to underlying medical issues such as poor egg quality, premature menopause, or damaged ovaries due to radiation treatments are considered to be good candidates for undergoing donor egg program. During donor egg program, healthy women who donate eggs are generally kept anonymous. Their identity is not revealed to other end recipients. Eggs obtained from them are stored in an egg bank. In some cases, patients may choose a known donor probably a family member or a friend with doctor’s consent. Doctors use these donated eggs and fertilize them artificially in a laboratory by combining them with sperm of male partner. At the end, they insert it into uterus of recipients. Donor egg program can considerably help women to conceive a baby in a normal manner.
- Embryo Cryopreservation – Embryo cryopreservation is an infertility intervention which involves freezing the extra embryos that are derived during in vitro fertilization Doctors may use slow-freezing techniques or vitrification method for rapid freezing of embryos. Working principle of embryo cryopreservation is that only a single embryo is used at a time during IVF procedure. There may arise a situation where first IVF treatment cycle fails or do not give desired results. In such circumstances, embryo cryopreservation may help them in attaining pregnancy by using the frozen embryo. Embryo cryopreservation procedure can also be implemented successfully if a couple wants to have another baby after first successful attempt of IVF. Patients who do not need embryos may also donate them in order to help someone else struggling with infertility.
- Assisted Hatching – During initial few days of development, embryo is enclosed by an outer protective shell which is clinically referred to as ‘zona pellucida’. When an embryo is inserted into uterus of women, this outer shell gets dissolved entirely and helps it to hatch inside in a normal manner. This hatching function enables the embryo to implant safely inside female uterus. Sometimes, zona pellucida may fail to dissolve by its own due to hardening of its outer shell cover. In such cases, assisted hatching may become necessary. Assisted hatching procedure is performed in a sophisticated laboratory. It involves making a small slot in embryo’s outer layer with the help of fine needles. Doctors carefully make a small slot and transfer the embryo in uterus. This micromanipulation technique of assisted hatching can significantly aid natural implantation of embryo inside patient’s uterus which eventually increases the chances of pregnancy.
- Uterine Polypectomy – Uterine polypectomy is a surgical procedure that can effectively treat uterine polyps and improve fertility in women. Uterine polyps are basically abnormal growths that may develop on outer lining of uterus called as endometrial lining due to formation of unusual endometrial cells. These endometrial cells may become cancerous in nature over a period of time. During uterine polypectomy surgery, doctors remove the polyps with the aid of advanced medical tools and imaging techniques like ultrasound. Ultrasound test involves identification of size and location of polyps with the help of powerful sound waves. Doctors carefully analyze their precise location and remove them. Uterine polypectomy procedure clearly helps patients to get pregnant and conceive a baby without much risks and complications.
- Embryo Donation Program – Embryo donation program may be implemented when extra embryos are left after in vitro fertilization Sometimes, patients may themselves need extra embryos when their initial IVF cycle is unsuccessful. On the contrary, embryo donation program may be a good option if patients have conceived a healthy baby and do not wish to have another baby. Donors must be in a good general condition and should not have any history of genetic disorders as well. Age parameter for females during embryo formation is mostly under 35 and for males, it is below 49. Such patients may donate the embryos to needy couples struggling with severe infertility issues. However, it is completely a personal choice. There is no compulsion on anyone to undergo embryo donation program. Interested couples may consult respective fertility specialists to understand everything in details.
- Preconception Genetic Screening – Preconception genetic screening is an excellent option to minimize the chances of babies from getting any serious genetic disorder in future. If any of the parents have a medical history of genetic disorders, the possibility of giving birth to a child with genetic abnormality becomes high. Preconception genetic screening helps such couples who are planning to have a baby. Preconception genetic screening involves a series of medical tests that can clearly help in identifying the likelihood of parents passing abnormal genes to their baby. Doctors may advise nutritional changes or suggest medication or other possible solutions for avoiding potential problems in advance. Couples struggling with health conditions such as Bloom syndrome, Canavan disease, cystic fibrosis, gaucher disease, sickle cell anemia, and so on are good candidate for preconception genetic screening.
Types of Male Infertility Treatments
The given list depicts some commonly performed male infertility treatments.
- Sperm Banking – Sperm banking has become a globally popular male infertility treatment. Sperm banking mainly involves three vital steps. At first, it requires taking out a specimen of sperm from male via simple medical procedures, then freezing the obtained sperms in a specialized laboratory and at the end storing the specimen in a sperm bank. Sperm bank is simply a place where dedicated medical practitioners preserve sperms. It is a fact that sperm count and its quality declines as men start to age. If someone is not planning to have a baby for a considerable amount of time due to either medical issues or some other priorities. They may use sperm banking procedure to store their sperms for future use. Sometimes, men may donate their sperms in order to help needy couples suffering from infertility issues.
- Sperm Retrieval Techniques – Sperm retrieval techniques refer to a set of minimally invasive medical procedures that can help treat male infertility problems due to low sperm count. Treatments like percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA), micro epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA), and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) are three major sperm retrieval techniques that are being used widely for patients experiencing either low sperm levels or azoospermia. Azoospermia indicates a condition that usually results in complete absence of sperms in patient’s semen. Working principle of all these sperm retrieval techniques is to extract a considerable amount of sperm from male testis or epididymis and insert it into female partner’s uterus to help her achieve pregnancy and conceive a healthy baby in a natural way.
- Transurethral Resection of Seminal Vesicles – Seminal gland in men that helps in formation of sperm is also referred to as ‘seminal vesicle’. It secretes a specific fluid that gets mixed with sperm in order to form semen in a smooth manner. Transurethral resection of seminal vesicles is a surgical technique which may be implemented when seminal gland fails to perform its function properly due to dilation. Transurethral resection of seminal vesicles procedure uses ultrasound imaging technique for identifying and treating the underlying cause of dilation of seminal vesicles. Ultrasound procedure creates high-resolution images with the help of sound waves and guides surgeons throughout the procedure. Transurethral resection of seminal vesicles involves extremely fewer complications that can be controlled easily and it significantly enhances fertility of men.
- Varicocele Ligation – Varicoceles refer to a health condition that arises due to enlargement of varicose veins in scrotum of men. These varicoceles may fuel up the possibility of descended testicles and become cause of infertility in men. Varicocele ligation is a surgical intervention that can help treat varicoceles and help men to retain their fertility. Varicocele ligation is a minimally invasive technique. At first, doctors make a tiny incision around abdominal region of patients in order to detect the underlying veins that are responsible for the development of varicocele. Once the trouble-causing veins are figured out, respective doctors cut them out to stop the blood supply in that specific varicocele region. This eventually helps in production of good quality sperms which is directly proportional to male fertility. It requires just an hour to complete and recovery following varicocele ligation is also very quick. Most patients resume daily activities within a week.
- Transurethral Resection of the Ejaculatory Duct – Ejaculatory duct obstruction is the most common reason for male infertility. It appears when ejaculatory ducts get blocked due to any underlying condition. Ejaculatory ducts may be considered as delicate tubes that act as a passageway for sperm. Sperm passes through these ejaculatory ducts and combines with semen before ejection. Transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct is a procedure that can be performed when ejaculatory ducts get blocked and prevent a female partner from getting pregnant due to the absence of sperm in semen of male partner. During transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct, doctors remove the blockage with the help of dedicated high-end medical tools which enable the normal flow of sperm through them. In this way, transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct procedure helps in improving the chances of successful pregnancy after sexual intercourse between couples.
Why Choose India for Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART Procedures)?
India is one of the best and highly acknowledged infertility treatment destinations across the world. This country has a large number of infertility clinics and hospitals that provide mainstream assisted reproductive technology (ART procedures) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), intrauterine insemination (IUI), zygote tube transfer (ZIFT), gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT), and embryo cryopreservation at extremely economical prices. In fact, infertility treatment cost in India is very affordable as compared to Western nations. To be honest, infertility treatment cost in Western nations is thrice the prices that Indian hospitals normally charge. Less infertility treatment cost does not indicate that Indian hospitals compromise on quality of procedures. You can avail high-quality treatments under the guidance of top-notch fertility specialists within economical budget.
What IndianMedTrip Offers?
IndianMedTrip offers the given medical facilities to international patients for ensuring successful outcomes.
- Excellent medical provisions under the guidance of top infertility treatment specialists in India
- Access to best ART procedures from accredited multi-specialty hospitals and clinics in India
- Finest infertility treatment packages at economical prices
- Free online medical consultation and assistance in availing medical visas at the earliest
- Free call-back facility and 24×7 assistance through call and electronic mail
- Postoperative care even when patients fly back to their native countries
- Top-class, affordable, transparent, and hassle-free healthcare facilities
Fertility Medical Tourism in India
Availability of high-end fertility provisions, top-class infertility treatment centers, and presence of experienced fertility specialists has made India one of the finest medical tourism destinations. Majority of fertility specialists practicing in this country are highly-qualified and talented. They are well-versed in performing ART procedures as well as other female and male infertility treatments in India. Apart from that, infertility treatment cost in India is also pocket-friendly. Any common man can easily afford infertility treatment in India. Most importantly, success record of infertility treatment in India is quite high. Therefore, overseas patients can definitely rely on infertility treatment in India for ensuring positive outcomes