You may have to consult an orthopedic surgeon for action towards injuries such as a bone fracture, deformity of spine or limbs, or a long-term ailment such as arthritis. Orthopedics is a medical specialty focusing on such major problems. It is a multifarious system of your bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, & nerves which allow movement, work & constant action. Even though these problems do not cause any mishaps but they surely block your way to good health. Common orthopedic surgical procedures correcting musculoskeletal problems include knee replacement surgery, hip-joint replacement surgery, shoulder replacement surgery, ankle joint fusion surgery & bow leg surgery.
An area where one bone is connected with another bone with the help of connective tissue is called Arthro or Joint. It is categorized into two types, functional & structural. The main function of a joint is to provide movement in angular or 360-degree motion. When a joint is damaged by injuries or infections or else affected with osteoarthritis/arthritis, tumors, degenerative diseases & congenital disorders then joint replacement surgery is recommended. Joint Replacement Surgery is part of Orthopedics hence surgical as well as non-surgical techniques are carried out by orthopedic surgeons. The burden of pain can be reduced with the help of minimally invasive orthopedic therapies prescribed by doctors.
Today orthopedic surgeons in India are very well known for their skills & practice. Extensive numbers of surgeries take place with success rates of 80-90%. Orthopedic surgeons make use of latest methods to treat bone diseases or imperfections. The surgical procedure & overall cost of other facilities like physiotherapy is much less compared to other countries. The healthcare facilities are well equipped with medical talent & cutting edge technology. Many orthopedic hospitals in Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, & Chennai provide excellent world-class facilities to their patients. These are accredited & offer excellent orthopedic care & facilities. Most packages include stay, food & other medical facilities. Global patients flock to India & avail orthopedic cartilage surgery, bone transplantation, & limb salvage treatment in many reasonable prices. Arthroscopic knee surgery, kind of key-hole surgery, is much advanced & cost-effective. Also, post-operation care along with sightseeing places in India is quite stressing relieving & inexpensive.
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1. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery (ACL): Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery is also known as reconstructive surgery of knee in which torn AC ligament is treated with least invasive arthroscopic surgery. In rare cases, the ligament is engrafted, which can be a part of patellar tendon or hamstring tendon of patient’s body or from the cadaver donor. ACL tears in athletes are treated by transplanting Mesenchymal stem cells. This method regenerates similar ACL tissue thus promoting quick healing & recovery from injury. Post-surgery patients are advised by physiotherapists to carry out regular motion exercises to regain muscle suppleness.
2. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery (PCL): Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) is a thick & strong ligament which is located at the back of knee connecting tibia posterior intercondylar area to femur’s medial condyle. It acts as a knee stabilizer & controls the rotational movement of the knee. Whenever there is a sports injury or an accident, PCL gets damaged due to excess backward movement of the tibia on the femur. Muscle tear can be detected by MRI scan & the injury history. It is impossible to repair this ligament, therefore, muscle grafting is done. Autograft & Allograft are two methods through which this inactive ligament can be substituted & made functional. Posterior Cruciate Ligament surgery takes about 6-8 hours. After 6 weeks regular exercises will be suggested by physiotherapist which will eventually strengthen muscle & give effective mobility.
3. Knee Replacement Surgery: There are many factors which contribute to knee replacement such as obesity, trauma, joint instability, nutrition, medications, hormonal changes, repetitive trauma, poor alignment & biomechanics, age & genetics. To relieve pain & disability of weight-bearing surfaces of knee-joint, orthopedic surgeons mostly recommend knee replacement surgery. There are four major types of this surgery; Total Knee Replacement, Unicompartmental (Partial) Knee Replacement, Kneecap Replacement or Patellofemoral Arthroplasty & Complex or Revision Knee Replacement. The key characteristic of these specialized laparoscopic techniques is that a surgeon can perform operation without making large incisions which makes easier for patients to recover quickly. Surgery costs in India for knee replacement is quite affordable & highly successful.
4. Rotator Cuff Repair Surgery: Rotator cuff is responsible for 360 degree rotation & steadiness of the shoulder. There are various assemblies of tendons & muscles in this region. These tendons & muscles connect humerus & scapula of the shoulder. This body part is more prone to sports injury & muscle tear. Whenever there is an injury of tendon or torn rotator cuff then orthopedic surgeon may suggest shoulder repair treatment. Tear does not heal easily therefore Rotator Cuff Repair surgery is needed for optimum results. Large incision surgery & shoulder arthroscopy are two surgical methods to treat torn tendons. In incision surgery large or complicated tears are repaired. The recovery usually takes 6 months or more depending upon the severity of tear.
5. Elbow Surgery: An elbow joint is formed by humerus bone (upper part) & ulna & radius bone (lower part). It is held together by strong muscles, ligaments & tendons. This joint further expands to forearm in which extrinsic hand muscles control the movement of wrist. Fracture or muscle tear can lead to pain & non-functional elbow joint. In Olecranon fracture, elbow may become stiff causing massive pain & restricted movement. It is easy to diagnose & spot fractures & dislocations with help of X-Rays. Under general anesthesia, an incision is made on the backside of elbow to arrange the bones or any crushed bone is replaced by bone filler material. Elbow Arthroscopy is a procedure used to treat ‘golfer’s elbow’ or ‘medial epicondylitis’. Tennis players are more prone to this elbow pain. Elbow replacement surgery is for fully damaged elbow joint caused by Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, severely broken bone, tumor & worn out tissues.
6. Hip Replacement Surgery: Hip Replacement Surgery or Hip Arthroplasty is presently the most common orthopedic operation which is generally conducted in cases of arthritis pain & hip fractures. Selection of correct prosthetic replacement implant is crucial in this surgical procedure. Osteoarthritis caused by wear & tear is the most common diagnosis leading to hip replacement surgery. While affecting cartilage surfaces of ball-and-socket joint of hips stiffness results due to this condition in osteoarthritis. Patients with hip arthritis face difficulty in walking, climbing steps & conducting routine daily chores. Other conditions causing hip destruction include loss of blood supply to head of thigh bone, infection, previous injury or trauma, rheumatoid arthritis which is an inflammatory autoimmune disease & developmental abnormalities in hip.
7. Hip Resurfacing: An alternative to Hip replacement surgery in which a cobalt-chrome metal cap is placed in the pelvic socket (acetabulum), conserving proximal femoral bone & replacing articulating surfaces of the hip joint. The advantages of this procedure are removal of little bone compared to a THR, lower rate of dislocation, less prospect of harming proximal femur, & easy revision surgery. It is best suited to young & active patients. Hip resurfacing cost in India is quite low when compared to western countries.
8. Shoulder Joint Replacement Surgery: Shoulder Surgery or Shoulder Replacement Surgery is far less common than hip or knee replacement, although it is just as successful in relieving shoulder joint pain. Originally designed to treat shoulder fractures, over the years it has come to be useful for several other painful conditions including different types of arthritis. Especially when medications & activity changes have not been able to help, you may want to go in for shoulder replacement surgery. This is an effective & safe surgical procedure to relieve pain & help you get back to everyday activity. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery procedure is broadly utilized to treat a variety of orthopedic problems including osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease), rheumatoid arthritis, post-traumatic arthritis, rotator cuff tear arthropathy, avascular necrosis (osteonecrosis) severe fractures & failed previous shoulder replacement surgery.
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9. Arthroscopic Surgery: Typically, there are many forms of arthritis, some like lupus & rheumatoid arthritis can affect multiple organs causing widespread symptoms. Symptoms generally include aching, pain, swelling & stiffness in & around one or more joints. Though children are also found to be affected by this medical condition, arthritis is most common among adults above 65 years of age. Arthritis has significant impact on individual health. Almost 22.7 million adults suffering from arthritis around the world have reported limitations in usual activities. 40% of these say it is either difficult, or they are unable to perform at least 1 of the 9 important daily chores. About 8 million adults who report activity limitation including severe conditions are unable to bend, stoop or kneel with 6 million who cannot walk quarter of a mile. Impairment inability of people with arthritis to perform important daily tasks interferes with work capacity, purpose in community or their capability to care for family. Arthritis also displays a strong association with depression due to its role in limiting functions.
10. Arthroscopic Surgery for Torn Cartilage: This is a tissue which helps in controlling the frictional movement inside the joint & is called Cartilage. Many factors contribute to cartilage damage such as aging wear & tear by age or sport injuries. If left untreated, it can give rise to various conditions like inflammation, acute pain, internal injury, & infections. Torn cartilage surgery is also known by the name Arthroscopic Meniscus Repair. It is a minimally invasive technique performed by highly skilled surgeons. With the help of an Arthrosc+ope the torn meniscus tissue is repaired.
11. Unilateral Meniscectomy: Surgical removal of damaged meniscus tissue is called Meniscectomy. It is a key-hole surgical procedure in which some part or all meniscus-rim is removed from the tibiofemoral joint. Ortho surgeons in India are well known to perform Unilateral Meniscectomy & treatment costs for this procedure are also quite affordable in this country.
12. Hammertoe Repair: Hammertoe is a deformity which causes toe to bend upwards in middle thereby resembling a hammer. This condition often occurs in conjunction with other relative toe problems. Managing hammertoes by treating symptoms involve padding, changing or stretching shoe-wear for comfort. If discomfort still persists, surgery can be your ideal option. Hammertoes can either be flexible or stiff. Depending upon the condition your surgeon will be able to choose the right surgical procedure as treatment. Goal of this surgery is to treat & eventually relieve pain. Patients with associated problems alongside hammertoe must not go for this surgery alone. They will need to address other relative deformities as well. Hammertoe Repair surgery is generally done as an outpatient procedure.
13. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgery: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Surgery is also known as Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery. It should be treated early on the first signs of symptoms. Mild symptoms of discomfort can generally be eased by taking frequent breaks to rest hands. Avoiding activities which worsen symptoms & cold pack applications to reduce swelling are often advised. However, if these measure do not offer relief within a fortnight, additional medical treatments include medications, wrist splinting & surgery. Many conservative methods of treatment like splinting are likely to help relieve mild to moderate symptoms persisting for less than 10 months of time. Medications can include NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) like ibuprofen to relieve pain for short term. Your doctor might even administer corticosteroids into carpal tunnel which decrease swelling & inflammation while relieving pressure on median nerve. In cases where carpal tunnel syndrome is triggered by inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis, it would be sensible to treat arthritis to reduce symptoms. If nothing else work for you, surgery is the most appropriate option. This involves cutting the ligament pressing median nerve so as to relieve pressure. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome surgery can either be open conventional surgery or endoscopic surgical procedure depending on your preference.
14. Ankle Joint Fusion: Ankle Arthrodesis is commonly known as Ankle Joint Fusion. This surgical procedure is performed to relieve pain, & improve or maintain functions for patients suffering with ankle arthritis. Ankle arthritis is a condition resulting in degeneration of cartilage covering the ends of bones forming the ankle joint. The bones involving in ankle joint are the tibia, fibula & talus. Pain is typically made worse with movement in arthritic ankle. Ankle Joint Fusion surgery involves these bones & fuses them as one thereby reducing pain by eliminating ankle joint motion. This surgical procedure however does not reverse ankle arthritis, but numerous patients have experienced temporary or permanent relief from pain.
15. Bow Leg Surgery: Bow Leg or Genu Varum is caused by a number of diseases wherein the course shin & thigh bones get bowed. This condition often makes patient’s suffer psychological & physical discomfort. Bow Legs eventually lead to early developed arthritis due to uneven distribution of pressure it transfers onto outer & inner parts of knee joints. This painful & progressive deformation process can be effectively halted by opting for Bow Leg Surgery. Bow Leg surgical procedure makes proper alignment of legs which reflect & correct bio-mechanic axis allowing pressure to be equally transferred onto knee joints. Bow Leg correction surgery is fast & also available through minimally invasive procedure. This literally bloodless correction technique without major scarring is also provided for cosmetic reasons.
16. Limb Lengthening Surgery: Limb Lengthening procedure works by gradual growing of new bone & soft tissues like blood vessels, nerves, muscle & skin. Tissue regeneration is boosted when bone & soft tissue are distracted at a very slow rate, about 1 mm each day. Bone fails to form between both ends if distraction is any faster, while soft tissues may experience contracture while nerves paralyze. Premature consolidation may occur if rate of distraction is too slow thereby preventing lengthening. There are a number of different lengthening devices used in Limb Lengthening procedure. Some devices attach to bone by thick pins or thin wires with screws threading attachment to bone, while some others are fully implanted inside bone. Limb Lengthening is a complex process successfully utilized for bone reconstruction for the last 50 years.
India is a preferred destination for affordable Orthopedic Surgery procedures. Thousands of people from all around the globe visit India every year to seek surgical solutions to their arthritis-related medical problems. Some of the most common procedures include Hand & Wrist Surgery, Foot & Ankle Surgery including Ankle Joint Replacement Surgery, Bunion Surgery, Cervical Surgery, Spinal Fusion Surgery, Elbow Replacement Surgery & Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery. Fixing artificial knee & hip replacement in India is an excellent idea; commonly available knee & hip surgeries are Unilateral Knee Replacement, Bilateral Knee Replacement, Unilateral Hip Replacement, & Bilateral Hip Replacement including minimally invasive total knee replacement procedure. Orthopedic hospitals in India are high-tech & offer specialized fracture surgery & nerve injury treatments including Ilizarov technique.