Kidneys are significant for maintaining human life. With an intricate purposeful network of tubes & tubules that filter blood of its waste products & excess water, the electrolyte, fluid & acid-base regulation mechanism is extremely important to the system. Nephrology purely deals with study & curing of kidney diseases in both adults & infants. Pediatric Nephrology is a sub-field focusing on kidney diseases of infants & adolescents up to 15 years of age. Nephrologists closely work together with Urologists for the prevention of kidney diseases; it may also include surgical solutions of renal system. Kidney disease or renal damage is caused mainly because of diabetic kidney & high blood pressure.
Nephrology purely deals with study & curing of kidney diseases in both adults & infants. Kidneys are vital pair of organs just 4-5 inches long, located in the back, one on each side of the vertebral column. A mammoth task of filtering blood of about 1 liter in every 1 minute is carried out by these pea shaped organs. Nephron filters blood by eliminating metabolic waste products such as urea, uric acids, creatinine & excess water which results in urine production. Kidneys also release an enzyme called renin which helps in controlling PH level, volume & pressure of blood & also ensures electrolyte balance in the body. Kidney disease or renal damage is caused mainly because of diabetes & high blood pressure. It is always better to treat kidney disease otherwise, it may cause kidney failure. Prior indications of kidney disease can be cloudy or dark-colored urine, inflamed legs/ hands, stomach cramping or pain because of kidney stones, queasiness & fatigue. Nephrologists closely work together with Urologists in prevention of kidney diseases; it may also include surgical solutions of the renal system.
1. Nephrectomy: It is a surgical process used to remove infected or damaged kidney. In partial nephrectomy method only the infected portion of kidney is removed, & in radical method complete kidney is removed by surgeons. Various indications calling for this procedure include a non-functioning kidney, renal cell carcinoma & congenitally small kidney which is pressing on nerves due to swelling. Nephrectomy is also required as procedure for living donor kidney transplantation.
2. Laparoscopic Nephrectomy: In laparoscopic nephrectomy which is commonly preferred nowadays, is a safe & effective way to remove diseased or cancerous kidneys. Performed under general anesthesia, a flexi tube with camera is entered so as to get a magnified view of internal structures. With help of trocars & other instruments incisions & stitches are made & kidney is removed. This minimally invasive procedure is more preferred over traditional surgery because of shorter hospital stay, recovery time, minimal incisions & less post-operative complications. The laparoscopic procedure of kidney removal cost you less in India when compared to similar procedures in other western countries.
3. Nephrolithotomy (PCNL): India is an ideal destination for affordable PCNL procedure. Renal Lithiasis is another name of Nephrolithotomy. Stones which are 1-2 cm big in diameter are removed by Nephrolithotomy procedure. This is a keyhole procedure, in which a minimal incision is made to carefully remove the complicated stone. Hospital stay requirement in this procedure is generally of 4-5 days & recovery time is quite less.
4. Dialysis: Dialysis, is done when kidney fails to perform the task of removing waste from body. It performs the same function of removing waste, salt & excessive water from blood. This process continues until the patient gets a new kidney transplant. This process can be extended if a patient doesn’t qualify for transplant. Hemodialysis & peritoneal dialysis are two types of dialysis. In hemodialysis computerized dialysis machine is used to filter blood whereas, in peritoneal dialysis, patient himself periodically infuses & drains out fluids. It is also known as Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis.
5. Renal Transplant: In renal transplant, healthy kidney from living or cadaver donor is transplanted into the patient whose kidney is either diseased or non-functional. Organ replacement is only possible if the patient’s blood group & tissue type matches with the donor. This surgical procedure takes about 3-4 hours. There are many hospitals in India offering laparoscopic kidney transplant & other surgeries at very affordable prices.
6. Polycystic Kidney: It is an inherited disease in which clusters of non-cancerous cysts develop inside kidneys. These cysts are like water filled bubbles & vary in sizes i.e. from a dot to 3-4 inches long. Abdominal pain, bloating or swelling in abdomen & feeling full are symptoms of polycystic kidney disease. The other complications of PKD are bleeding into a cyst, bile duct obstruction, jaundice, & cyst infection. An early step in treating polycystic kidney is always beneficial in controlling & preventing further complications. Some lifestyle changes can help in reducing damage to kidneys.
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7. Diabetes Mellitus: A lifelong condition often referred as Diabetes Mellitus by doctors in which a patient suffers from high blood glucose levels because of inadequate insulin production. There are three types of diabetic kidney disorders; Type 1 -Diabetes, Type 2 -Diabetes & Gestational Diabetes. Excessive urination & increased hunger & thirst are symptoms of patients having high blood sugar. Other common symptoms of diabetes include exhaustion, sudden weight gain or weight loss, numbness & tingling in hands & feet along with body cuts & bruises that do not heal alongside male sexual dysfunction. Diabetes can be effectively controlled with help of proper insulin administration, pharmacologic treatment & controlled blood glucose. Sometimes there are no specific symptoms of diabetic kidney disease.
8. Kidney Stone Treatment: Kidney stones are made of hard minerals & acid salt deposits & can grow up to 8-10 mm in size. These stones when present inside kidney cause a lot of pain & can affect any region of the urinary tract right from kidneys to bladder. If stone is smaller, it easily passes through urine by consuming a lot of water or liquids. Passage of kidney stone along the tract can be extremely painful. In cases where stones are lodged within urinary tract & cause complications while passing urine then Urologists generally recommend surgical options for removal.
9. Glomerular Disease: It is uncertain to say whether Glomerular Disease is caused by diabetes, lupus or any associated diseases. It develops abruptly or sometimes gradually with period of time. The hypoproteinemia, edema, hematuria, albuminuria & reduced glomerular filtration rate are indications of this disease.
10. Renal Osteodystrophy: This is a type of bone condition which causes thinning & weakening of joints & multiple fractures. It happens when kidneys fail to regulate calcium & phosphorous levels in blood. Common among most dialysis patients, it is most serious in children as this condition slows bone growth causing deformities & short stature as a result. Proper calcium supplements, diet & exercise with medication is helpful in treating this disease.
11. Electrolyte Imbalances: Electrolytes are chemicals (positive & negative charged ions) in blood which regulate important functions of our body. They are very important for proper nerve reactions & muscle functions. Loss of body fluid has great impact on electrolytes, & if timely care is not taken persons may suffer from prolonged diarrhoea (Diarrhea), vomiting, sweating or high fevers. Other specific reasons for complications from chemotherapy like tumor-lysis syndrome causing low blood calcium with high potassium levels are also reasons triggering electrolyte abnormalities.
12. Hematuria: Hematuria is a condition in which red blood corpuscles are visible in urine, but through a microscope. Blood in urine can be gross Hematuria & which can be seen through the naked eye. In urinalysis, urine samples show visible signs of red, pink or cola-coloured patch which is due to presence of red blood corpuscles. Passing blood clots in urine can at times be painful & requires immediate medical attention in such cases.
IndianMedTrip aims to offer best medical care to patients at considerably low costs. Other Nephrology treatments & solutions available are for a variety of other kidney infections. We are tied up with top hospitals in metros like Chennai, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi & other cities which offer affordable services & surgical procedures on kidney & other nephrology associated diseases.
This Asian country tops in the provision of inexpensive, exclusive medical treatments & facilities. Every year, scores of medical tourists come to India for kidney replacement, critical care nephrology, biopsies, & dialysis. Kidney transplant surgeons & renal specialists here are considered to be the best in the world. Medical treatments comprise of the most advanced & finest therapies to cure renal diseases. The cost of surgery & kidney transplant is very low in India compared to developed countries. Other treatments include Chronic Renal Failure, Diabetes Mellitus, Glomerular Disease, & several other associated Nephrology issues. Pathology clinics use cutting-edge technology to find, examine & determine the root cause of any disease. Urine tests, blood tests, physical symptom analysis, X-rays, etc. & other diagnostics are cheaper in India. Healthcare in accord with the vacation industry has taken a concrete shape in India & now it has become an extremely popular destination among medical tourists. Relishing exotic locations after medical treatments under the doctor’s supervision is preferred by many patients.