Vascular & Endovascular Surgery are a surgical subspecialty in which diseases of vascular system like veins & arteries are managed by application of medical therapy, minimally invasive catheter procedures & surgical reconstruction techniques. This specialty originally evolved from general & cardiac surgery including minimally invasive techniques pioneered by interventional radiology. Vascular surgeons are basically trained in diagnosis & management of diseases affecting all areas of the vascular system excepting those of brain & heart. Interventional cardiologists & cardiothoracic surgeons manage diseases of vessels of the heart, while interventional neuroradiologists & neurosurgeons manage surgical diseases of vessels in brain including intracranial aneurysms.
Vascular surgery encompasses surgery of carotid arteries, aorta & lower extremities including femoral, iliac & tibial arteries. Vascular surgery also encompasses surgery of veins for conditions like varicose veins & May-Thurner syndrome. In some cases vascular surgery also includes other regions in treatments like transplant surgery & dialysis access surgery.
Evolving greatly since 1990s, this specialty continues to be based upon operative arterial & venous surgery with considerable emphasis of on minimally invasive alternative techniques to open surgery. Originally pioneered by interventional radiologists like Dr. Charles Dotter who invented angioplasty, further development of this field has occurred through joint efforts between interventional cardiology, vascular surgery & interventional radiology. This specific area of vascular surgery is termed Interventional Vascular Surgery or Endovascular Surgery which some doctors in this specialty append to their primary qualification as vascular surgeons. Endovenous & endovascular procedures now are found to form the bulk of vascular surgery practice.
Development of endovascular surgery has generally accompanied by gradual separation of vascular surgery from the original general surgery. Many vascular surgeons now would confine practice to vascular surgery & similarly general surgeons no longer train or practice larger vascular surgery operations or endovascular procedures. Moreover, professional vascular surgery societies & their training programs have recently formally separated ‘Vascular Surgery’ into a separate specialty with its own accreditation, meetings & training program. However, SIR or Society of Interventional Radiology still remains intimately involved with practice of endovascular therapy. Several members of this society form part of multi-disciplinary teams treating a variety of vascular disorders alongside vascular surgeons, though in many other regions of the world vascular surgeons have eventually involved so as to work alone.
Arterial & venous diseases treated by stenting, angiography, endovenous laser treatment & non-operative varicose vein treatment sclerotherapy are rapidly replacing major surgeries in first world countries. These new procedures effectively provide reasonable outcomes which are comparable to conventional surgery along with the advantage of shorter stays at the hospital, which is about a day or overnight for most cases, alongside lower morbidity & lower rates of mortality. Moreover, durability of endovascular arterial procedures is most often good especially when they are viewed in context of common clinical usage. This is most evident when arterial disease occurring among elder patients is usually associated with concurrent significant patient co-morbidities like ischemic heart disease. Cost savings from less morbidity & shorter hospital stays are considerable but somehow seem to get balanced by the high cost of construction, imaging equipments & staffing of dedicated procedural suites & implant devices. Benefits for young patients in venous disease are less persuasive but demonstrate comparable efficacy in medium term by strong trends towards non-operative treatment solutions driven by health insurance company costs & patient preference. Recent trends have selectively brought together stand-alone day angiography facilities with vascular surgery clinics so as to allow convenient treatment of many endovascular cases with lesser overall costs. Similar non-hospital treatment-facilities providing non-operative vein treatment have also existed for years & are now found to be widespread across many countries. Another emerging trend which is based on venous clinics is treatment of varicose veins by non-vascular cosmetic physicians, radiologists & phlebologists. Such practices aim to offer complete varicose & surface vein treatment without any involvement of surgery.
Vascular & endovascular surgeons associated with IndianMedTrip effectively treat vascular diseases involving blood vessels & conditions of the lymphatic system. Full range of vascular & endovascular procedures performed by these surgeons include the following.
India has over the last decade has emerged as a leading global medical tourism destination providing a variety of low cost healthcare solutions to people from all around the world. Healthcare facilities in India are compatible with international standards & are managed by highly trained professionals including many doctors & surgeons who have initially trained in western countries like UK, Canada & United States. IndianMedTrip is a reputed one-stop online healthcare tourism company based in South Asia & offering a wide spectrum of affordable medical solutions to international patients.